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Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University School Of Excellence In Law

Intertwining issues of legal and political problems in environmental law have become increasingly evident on a global scale. As the world grapples with pressing environmental challenges such as climate change, deforestation, pollution, and biodiversity loss, the need for robust legal frameworks and effective political action has never been more critical. However, the complex nature of these problems, coupled with varying political priorities and interests, has often hindered progress in creating comprehensive and enforceable environmental regulations. Addressing these legal and political problems in environmental law necessitates a multi-faceted approach that combines legal reforms, increased accountability, and political will. Cooperation between nations, strengthened institutions, and public engagement are essential to drive positive change and ensure the effective protection of our environment for future generations.

UNEP is a leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes sustainable development, and coordinates environmental activities within the United Nations system. It works with governments, NGOs, and other stakeholders to develop and implement international environmental conventions and protocols.

The IUCN is the world's largest environmental network, bringing together governments, NGOs, and experts to conserve nature and promote sustainable development. It provides guidance and expertise on environmental policy, conducts research, and advocates for the protection of natural resources. WWF is an international non-governmental organization dedicated to conserving nature and reducing the most pressing threats to the diversity of life on Earth. It works on issues such as climate change, deforestation, sustainable development, and the protection of endangered species. WWF engages in policy advocacy, scientific research, and on-the-ground conservation projects.

Greenpeace is a global environmental organization known for its direct actions and advocacy campaigns. It focuses on issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, and pollution. Greenpeace uses peaceful protests, lobbying, and public awareness campaigns to promote environmental protection and hold governments and corporations accountable.

ELAW is a network of public interest environmental lawyers and scientists from over 80 countries. It provides legal and scientific support to local activists and organizations working on environmental issues. ELAW assists in the development of environmental laws, litigation, and capacity building for environmental advocacy.

EIA is an independent international organization that investigates and exposes environmental crimes, such as illegal wildlife trade, deforestation, and illegal logging. It conducts research, gathers evidence, and works with governments to develop and enforce environmental laws. FOEI is an international federation of environmental organizations that campaign for environmental and social justice. It focuses on issues such as biodiversity, climate change, and sustainable development. FOEI conducts research, advocacy, and grassroots mobilization to promote sustainable and equitable solutions.


  • Environmental law organizations engage in international advocacy to shape policies, treaties, and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to influence negotiations and promote environmental sustainability. These organizations contribute to the development and implementation of international frameworks, like the Paris Agreement, to combat climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • At the national level, environmental law organizations advocate for the enactment of comprehensive environmental legislation and the strengthening of existing laws. They work closely with lawmakers, drafting bills and providing expert opinions to shape legislation that protects natural resources, promotes renewable energy, and prevents pollution. By engaging in strategic lobbying and public campaigns, these organizations raise awareness about environmental issues and garner public support for legislative action.
  • Environmental law organizations often employ litigation as a tool to enforce environmental laws and hold governments and corporations accountable for environmental harm. They file lawsuits against polluters, challenging unsustainable practices, and seeking remedies for environmental damage. By utilizing legal avenues, these organizations aim to establish legal precedents and set a higher standard for environmental protection.
  • Another crucial aspect of the work carried out by environmental law organizations involves advocating for robust environmental impact assessment processes. They ensure that proposed development projects undergo thorough assessments to evaluate their potential environmental consequences. By reviewing EIAs and challenging inadequate assessments, these organizations help safeguard ecosystems and promote sustainable development practices.
  • Environmental law organizations collaborate with other like-minded entities, including non-governmental organizations, academic institutions, and grassroots movements. They form networks and coalitions to pool resources, share expertise, and amplify their collective voice. These collaborations enable them to tackle environmental challenges more effectively and influence policy and legal frameworks at various levels.
  • Despite the significant strides made by environmental law organizations, several challenges persist. Insufficient funding, limited access to justice, and resistance from powerful vested interests pose obstacles to their work. To overcome these challenges, increased collaboration among organizations, strategic use of technology, and engagement with policymakers are crucial. Moreover, efforts must be made to address environmental issues through an intersectional lens, recognizing the interconnectedness of environmental justice with social justice and human rights


  • The implementation of environmental law poses numerous legal and political challenges that hinder its effectiveness and often result in inadequate protection of the environment. These challenges arise from a variety of factors, including conflicting interests, insufficient enforcement mechanisms, and limited international cooperation. As given in the” Environmental Law and Policy” one of the primary legal problems in implementing environmental law is the existence of conflicting interests among various stakeholders. Industries and businesses often prioritize profit and economic growth over environmental concerns. As a result, they may resist compliance with environmental regulations or lobby for weaker regulations to reduce costs. This conflict of interest creates a challenging dynamic where legal frameworks may not be strong enough to hold polluters accountable effectively.
  • Insufficient enforcement mechanisms also contribute to the challenges faced in implementing environmental law. Governments and regulatory bodies often struggle to monitor compliance with environmental regulations due to limited resources and expertise. In some cases, the penalties for environmental violations may be inadequate to deter non-compliance effectively. Additionally, corruption and lack of transparency can undermine enforcement efforts, as powerful entities may attempt to influence regulatory decisions or escape penalties through illegal means Political factors further complicate the implementation of environmental law. Environmental issues often span national boundaries, requiring international cooperation and agreements. However, political differences, conflicting national interests, and differing levels of economic development can hinder collaboration and the formation of effective global frameworks for environmental protection. Political leaders may face pressure to prioritize short-term economic gains over long-term sustainability, making it challenging to achieve consensus on ambitious environmental goals.
  • Furthermore, the complex nature of environmental problems, such as climate change or biodiversity loss, makes it difficult to design comprehensive legal frameworks that address all aspects adequately. Environmental issues often intersect with social, economic, and cultural factors, requiring interdisciplinary approaches and cooperation between different sectors of society. Achieving consensus on these complex matters can be politically challenging and time consuming. To overcome these legal and political problems in implementing environmental law, several measures can be taken. Strengthening legal frameworks and penalties for environmental violations, investing in enforcement capabilities and expertise, promoting transparency and accountability, and fostering international cooperation are crucial steps. Additionally, promoting public awareness, engaging civil society organizations, and encouraging meaningful public participation can help create a more favorable environment for the implementation of environmental law.
  • The application of environmental law faces challenges arising from complex legal frameworks, inconsistent enforcement, and political influences so I think addressing these issues requires streamlining regulations, strengthening enforcement mechanisms, and fostering bipartisan cooperation to prioritize environmental protection and sustainability


  • “Environmental Law and Policy” by James Salzman and Barton H. Thompson Jr.
  • “Global Environmental Politics” by Gabriela Kutting.
  • Harvard Environmental Law Review.
  • Ecology Law Quarterly.

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