Environment degradation and climate change is obvious and is causing dangerous and widespread disruption of human life. With the epidemic and natural disasters across the globe, no matter summer or winter, there has been huge challenges that has created upheaval globally in economic, political, and social structure across nations. To enumerate some are the air pollution resulting in an estimated death of seven million every year due to various respiratory and other diseases, Access to drinking water in Middle East and several African countries and the distraught decrease of rainfall that has compounded to drive the human rights defenders to protect the environment at any cost.
The United Nations Environmental Programme and the United Nations Human Rights chiefs has come to formalize partnership to protect environment as a basic human right. Measures have been taken to strengthen the policies that help preserve and protect the nature on national basis legislations and their policies.
In the Mid 1960s, it has enabled Human rights institutions to aggressively claim the threats to food security. In Brazil, the court upheld such claimants’ rights to ensure right to food, education and health to children and adolescents. In India also food distribution schemes and policies were introduced after the social organizations challenged in the Supreme court in support of the poor and the impoverished sections of the society.
The planets water resources are also critical in serving the ecosystem and sustains human life and food security. The water governance therefore became a vital, to protect groups and communities in vulnerable nations. On July 28, 2010, the United Nations General Assembly recognizes Right to water and sanitation as a Human right (HRWS). In 1972 Stockholm Declaration, the United Nations member states declared that it is the fundamental right to live in dignity, an environment of quality and in wellbeing of human life.
The WHO forecasts that climate change is expected to cause around 250,000 deaths per year between 2030 and 2050 and that has been a part of debate since years to make it a basic human right. The UN General Assembly, on 28 July 2022, declares access to clean and healthy environment as a universal Human right. UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet called for emergency implementation of the programme.
Also according to the resolution:
- Environmental degradation, climate change, and unsustainable development constitute some of the most pressing and serious threats to the ability of present and future generations to enjoy human rights, including the right to life.
- The exercise of human rights is vital to the protection of a clean, healthy and sustainable environment.
- Additional measures should be taken for those who are particularly vulnerable to environmental harm.
- A clean, healthy, and sustainable environment is critical to the enjoyment of all human rights.
Supporting this Environment theory Dr. David R Boyd, a Canadian environmental lawyer, activist, and diplomat is United Nations Special Rapporteur on human rights and the environment. He in his presentation draws human rights obligation on constructing environmental safeguards in global treaties, national legislations and policies that applies a distinct approach in preserving the natural resources.
In January 2022, a Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, in January 2022, made a webinar on the human right to a safe, clean, healthy, and sustainable environment (HRHE).