IUCN was initially known as World Conservation Union, is the global authority to safeguard and protect the nature and the different species of natural and wild world living in it. It works to help countries mainstream nature into economic decisions and its policies. It constantly monitors the impacts of climate change on nature, and guides the conservation and restoration of ecosystems to help mitigate and adapt to it. It is organized into six Commissions dedicated to species survival, environmental law, protected areas, social and economic policy, ecosystem management, and education and communication
IUCN(International Union for Conservation of Nature) was established on 5 October1948 in the French town of Fontainebleau. Now the IUCN head office is in Gland, Switzerland. As the first global environmental union, it brought together governments and civil society sharing a unique goal to protect nature having an international cooperation in scientific knowledge and tools to guide conservation of nature.
IUCN is the official advisor on nature to the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. It is also entrusted with the task of evaluating sites nominated for the World Heritage List and monitors the state of conservation of listed sites. Differentiating CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) as international agreement between governments to protect nature, the IUCN is an United nations organ.
About 7 categories are listed in the IUCN red list which means threatened species.
- Data Deficient (DD)
- Least Concern (LC)
- Near Threatened (NT)
- Vulnerable (VU)
- Endangered (EN)
- Critically Endangered (CR)
- Extinct In The Wild (EW)
- Extinct (EX)
International Union for Conservation of Nature treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories: vulnerable, endangered, and critically endangered, depending on the degree to which they are threatened.
IUCN is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organizations.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) along with TRAFFIC(Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce) a global NGO monitors the board structure and trustees guide its work to combat wildlife crime and promote sustainable wildlife trade. The works are reliable in terms of scientific data and institutional knowledge. Nearly every country heeds its advice, and the organization maintains both observer and consultative status with the United Nations. Ultimately, it's one of the three most influential environmental conservation groups in the world. It is the world’s oldest global environmental organization.